And fishing practices such as cyanide fishing (using cyanide to make fish easier to catch), "blast fishing" with explosives, and overfishing with trawlers can destroy a thousand-year-old coral reef in a few minutes. Coral bleaching is theorized to be a generalized stress response of corals that may be caused by a number of biotic and abiotic factors, including: Oxygen starvation caused by an increase in zooplankton levels as a result of overfishing. Coral bleaching has occurred in the Caribbean, Indian, and Pacific oceans on a regular basis. Coral bleaching and subsequent coral death do not only occur during high temperature anomalies, but can also during abnormally cold periods (Hoegh-Guldberg and Fine, 2004; Lirman et al., 2011). We're not around right now. This is for the first time Great Barrier Reef has bleached two years in sequence. As a result, the white calcium-carbonate exoskeleton is visible through its transparent tissue leading to a condition known as Coral Bleaching. Halting unplanned coastal development would play a significant role in reversing the decline of reefs in some locations. Great Barrier Reef in Australia’s eastern coast is experiencing an unprecedented second straight year of mass coral bleaching. If we don’t act to halt this pollution, we risk the future of our precious Reef. coral bleaching upsc ias IAS NETWORK , June 3, 2019 June 3, 2019 , PRELIMS CURRENT AFFAIRS , PRELIMS 2020 , PRELIMS CURRENT AFFAIRS , 0 Corals control the level of carbon dioxide in the water by converting it into a limestone shell. Increasing intensity of marine heatwaves has caused widespread mass coral bleaching events, threatening the integrity and functional diversity of coral … How It Is made ? 8. Increasing intensity of marine heatwaves has caused widespread mass coral bleaching events, threatening the integrity and functional diversity of coral reefs. murder vents. But as the algae provide the coral with 90% of its energy, after expelling the algae the coral begins to starve. Good water quality is the reason why the Great Barrier Reef is one of the most beautiful, diverse and complex ecosystems in the world. In 2005, the U.S. lost half of its coral reefs in the Caribbean in one year due to a massive bleaching event. This increases the acidity of ocean water and inhibits the corals ability to create calcareous skeletons, which is essential for their survival. De tekst is beschikbaar onder de licentie Creative Commons Naamsvermelding/Gelijk delen, er kunnen aanvullende voorwaarden van toepassing zijn.Zie de gebruiksvoorwaarden voor meer informatie. Here, we provide spatial and temporal evidence that excess nutrients exacerbate the detrimental effects of heat stress to spark mass coral bleaching in the Red Sea. Beverly Biology 895 views. Degraded coral reefs are less able to provide the ecosystem services on which local human communities depend. Climate … Email Alerts | UPSC 2020 | Papers | Study Notes | Coaching | Ebooks, UPSC Hindi | यूपीइससी 2020 | पेपर्स | स्टडी मटेरियल. When water is too warm, corals will expel the algae (zooxanthellae) living in their tissues causing the coral to turn completely white. From UPSC perspective, the following things are important : Prelims level : Coral bleaching. We have had major bleaching in the Maldives, an areas that was hit so hard 1998, now hit again in 2010. Mass Bleaching—A Coral Reef Crisis. Drew Kann CNN Published Thursday, March 26, 2020 2:35AM EDT Last Updated Thursday, March … Harmful industrial waste must be treated before being disposed of in bodies of water. Third mass bleaching of Great Barrier Reef recorded Part of: GS Prelims and GS-III – Conservation; Environment In News: Australia’s Great Barrier Reef has suffered its most widespread coral bleaching on record. However, when corals are immoderately stressed, this causes them to expel more zooxanthellae than necessary, and therefore loss of color results from the expulsion of too many zooxanthellae, and/or the concentration of photosynthetic pigments in these organisms are diminished. Coral Bleaching : Environment for UPSC Exams Coral bleaching is the loss of endo-symbiotic algae from the coral, either through expulsion or loss of algal pigmentation. What is Coral Bleaching? The third mass coral bleaching of the Great Barrier Reef in five years is under way, with central and southern regions more badly affected than in the 2016 and 2017 events. The warming started to expand in the Indian Ocean and Southeast Asia. 2).The within region correlations were higher in Kenya (r=0.86) than the GBR (r=0.46), although the correlation was higher when only the sites at 6 m on the GBR were compared (r=0.80).Taxa-specific bleaching responses between regions were … Overfishing, pollution from agricultural and industrial runoff, coral mining, development of industrial areas near coral ecosystems also adversely impact corals. According to the records of 2016 and 2017, half of the Great Barrier Reef died due to Coral Bleaching. ; Key takeaways: Due to the rise in carbon dioxide levels, oceans absorb more carbon dioxide. Elevated sea temperature – This is considered to be the most common factor responsible for extensive coral bleaching. EMILIANIA HUXLEYI. Coral Bleaching - Geography Optional - UPSC & State PSC - by Subhodeep Das - Duration: 22:52. NEW! Communication Advisor. Australia's Great Barrier Reef runs the risk of another summer of elevated coral bleaching if cyclones and other rain events don't arrive to "suck out the heat", agencies say. For example, degraded reefs are less productive and may not be able to sustain accretion rates necessary to ensure reefs continue to provide shoreline protection services. This is known as coral bleaching, which is normal. A 4-degree global increase in temperature could lead to the collapse of all coral reef systems in the Western Pacific, due to mass coral bleaching. Required fields are marked *. Email Nick Kachel. Additionally, carbon dioxide absorbed into the ocean from the atmosphere has already begun to reduce calcification rates in reef-building and reef-associated organisms by altering seawater chemistry through decreases in pH. Coral bleaching occurs when coral polyps expel algae that live inside their tissues. Mass coral bleaching occurring in Great Barrier Reef for second year,Current Affairs 2017,UPSC,IBPS, Environment, Great Barrier Reef in Australia’s eastern coast is experiencing an unprecedented second straight year of mass coral bleaching. Wikipedia® is een geregistreerd handelsmerk van de Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., een organisatie zonder winstoogmerk. GCRA scientists work with community groups, environmental organizations, foundations, governments or private firms to build, restore and maintain coral reefs, nurseries and marine sanctuaries. When water is too warm, corals will expel the algae (zooxanthellae) living in their tissues causing the coral to turn completely white because the loss of algae reveals the white color of the calcium carbonate structure underlying the polyps. Above-average sea water temperatures caused by global warming have been identified as a leading cause for coral bleaching worldwide. Printed Study Material for UPSC Pre General Studies (Paper-1). Changes in tropical weather patterns result in less cloud cover and more radiations which induce coral bleaching. Coral’s are stressed when the temperate rises 1-2 degrees above normal ranges and stays elevated for an extended period. Mass Bleaching of Great Barrier Reef of Australia, the most widespread coral bleaching on record has been noticed recently. Promoting sustainable fishing and providing opportunities for ecotourism can help conserve corals. When a coral bleaches, it is not dead. If the stress-causing bleaching is not too severe and if it decreases with time, the affected corals usually regain their symbiotic algae within several weeks or a few months. Video shows photographs of bleached and dead coral.] When a coral bleaches, it is not dead. What is Coral Bleaching? Deze pagina is voor het laatst bewerkt op 8 okt 2020 om 18:31. There were significant relationships in the bleaching response of the coral taxa between study sites within and between regions (Table 3, Fig. What is bleaching? Photo: IUCN. CASTELLO A. Water pollution should be avoided wherever possible by not dumping chemicals or oils in water bodies. It started with bleaching that occurred very early this year in areas in the Central Pacific. Photo: ABC Corals begin producing their eggs about nine months before spawning, and sperm around five months before. Corals can survive a bleaching event, but they are under more stress and are subject to mortality. They observed that Andaman, Nicobar and Gulf of Kutch regions recorded an ‘alert level-2’ warning status in 2010, while the Gulf of … Prior to the 1980s, most mass coral moralities were related to non-thermal disturbances such as storms, aerial exposures during extreme low tides, and Acanthaster outbreaks. Coral Reefs are the marine equivalent of the Tropical rain forest and the coral bleaching has became a biggest threat to this. © 2020 IAS EXAM PORTAL - India's Largest Online Community for IAS, Civil Services Exam Aspirants. Coral reefs protect coastlines by absorbing constant wave energy from the ocean, thereby protecting people living near the coast from increased storm damage, erosion and flooding. Earlier in March and April 2016, 2,300-km reef suffered had its most severe bleaching on record due to warming sea temperatures. Warmer water temperatures can result in coral bleaching. ISLAND . Coral reefs are diverse underwater ecosystems held together by calcium carbonate structures secreted by corals. humans are causing this extinction. Posted April 10, 2017 09:49:34 Coral bleaching off Mission Beach, about two hours south of Cairns. Increased nutrient concentrations affect corals by promoting phytoplankton growth, which in turn supports increased numbers of organisms that compete with coral for space. A survey has found record sea temperatures had caused the third mass bleaching of the 2,300-kilometre Great Barrier Reef system in just five years. IAS 2020 Study Notes | THE GIST (NOV 2020). Coral bleaching: Warmer water temperatures can result in coral bleaching. It is estimated nearly two-thirds of 2,300-kilometre long reef or 700 km stretch of coral in the Great Barrier Reef’s northern part have died in the past .. Higher sea surface temperatures are directly correlated with widespread coral bleaching; “mass” bleaching (covering hundreds of kilometers or more) is driven by prolonged anomalously warm ocean temperatures. Many different hypotheses exist as to the cause behind coral bleaching. This can translate into reduced catches for fishers, which in turn impacts food supply and associated economic activities. 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