Since the worker termites in these groups more or less look the same, the appearance of the reproductive caste (alates) and soldiers is important. A generic revision and phylogeny of the family Kalotermitidae (Isoptera). 2000. Flying termites or alates are released quite regularly; once a pair is formed, they will seek out crevices or tiny holes in wood in which they will enter, seal the entrance up, and then slowly excavate a chamber within the wood. sound, dry wood in human-made structures, as well as furniture and other wooden items. low current electricity to infested wood and electrocutes drywood termites inside their galleries. A survey A survey of structure-infesting termites of peninsular Florida. The latter is significant to Florida because Incisitermes minor was taken from a park tree in New Orleans indicating that it can survive outdoors in a non-Mediterranean, subtropical climate. termite control companies busy, especially in newly developed areas in California where urban In humid conditions, drywood termites will excrete liquid feces, but in dry conditions, they reabsorb the moisture in their intestines, and excrete their feces as pellets (which are called frass). the queen will lay approximately two to five eggs during the first year, approximately eight to 15 The insides of the galleries and chambers are often filled with their droppings, especially in old nests. Queen. Further infestations are likely to be discovered in Florida. Drywood termite genera include Cryptotermes, Neotermes, Glyptotermes, Incisitermes, and Kalotermes, but the most distinctive and widespread is probably Cryptotermes. The enlarged third antennal segment of Incisitermes minor and the phragmotic head of Cryptotermes brevis easily separate the soldiers of these two species. during dispersal flights, leaves the colony. Some galleries are spacious enough Part 2. This apparently was the case with three boat infestations in Florida where termites and damage were found in wood located outside the cabins. cottonwood, oak, and sycamore trees and in stumps, downed logs, and large, dead branches on they may swarm much earlier in the year. Harvey PA. 1934. In 2000, the entire 24 foot length of the bench top had pellets falling from it. Currently, there is only one Kalotermes species in the United States (Kalotermes approximatus (Snyder), found in Florida and the southeastern U.S. north to Virginia). These droppings of drywood termites are characteristic of them, and can be usually seen accumulated as piles around infested wood. mechanism for conserving water. and weighing as much as 20 to 25 mg. Above – A drywood termite worker, or pseudergate, viewed close up. 4. Scheffrahn et al. Alates are 11 to 12.5 mm long, including the wings. Nevertheless, they can still cause serious damage if left undetected for years. The western drywood termite, Incisitermes minor (Hagen), is the most common structure-infesting drywood termite in the southwestern United States. Above – Drywood termites are usually slow to cause damage, but given a few years, are able to severely damage a piece of wood. What works for subterranean termites usually will not work for drywood termites; and vice versa. 3. The western drywood termite alate has an orange-brown The reproductive class has two pairs of equal size wings and is reddish brown in color. The physogastric However, he However, control of drywood termites is easier due to their nests being much easier to locate. The relative ease of intracontinental travel and commerce coupled with the fact that infested wood can be easily transported has resulted in isolated occurrences of Incisitermes minor infestations throughout the United States, including Florida. of structural inspection reports conducted in San Bernardino, Riverside, and Orange counties in Photograph by R.H. Scheffrahn, University of Florida. Cabrera, University of Florida. Cabrera, University of Florida. It is also found extensively in the central valley of California up to Sacramento and in isolated pockets in the high desert where trees are present. September through November. Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology 17: 219-229. Drywood Termites Facts, Identification & Control Latin Name. King. Behavior of Drywood Termites Unlike their subterranean cousins, Drywood termites live exclusively in wood and do not require any contact with soil. Microwave treatment. In desert areas, where average daytime temperatures are warmer, The workers are usually whitish, slow moving, and long bodied. Drywood termites do not need any contact with soil to live and grow; rather they just need wood to spend their lives. Their role is to feed the ot… These glands reabsorb water from the feces producing a as the population size and growth is influenced by numerous environmental factors such as Soldiers, alates and "workers" (pseudergates) of the western drywood termite, Incisitermes minor (Hagen). Nymphs change into larvae. with trees. Characteristic damage and galleries in wood made by the western drywood termite, Incisitermes minor (Hagen). by the king and queen until they are large enough to feed and excavate galleries in the host wood. For instance, in Palm Springs, CA, swarming flights Swarmers, also known as reproductives, are young female and male winged termites. Termites of the genus Cryptotermes were sometimes called powderpost termites because of the telltale heaps of fecal pellets (frass) that accumulate beneath infested wood. The Western drywood termite has been occasionally found in St. George, Utah, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Cleveland, Ohio, Niagara Falls, New York and other areas, but it has failed to become established in such areas outside its normal southern and mostly coastal range. and Incisitermes spp.. The galleries of Incisitermes minor are typical of other drywood termite species, albeit a bit larger and more cavernous. Rearing and testing methods in the laboratory, pp. opening kickout holes and injecting a termiticide into the galleries. Infestations have been found in China and this species is well established in Japan. Subterranean termite nymphs. Drywood termites can be easily detected in the house if one may follow a proper method to find them. Life Cycles: They have a distinct life cycle with several castes: eggs» immature» soldier» pseudergate» nymph» reproductive. size of the fifth to seventh instar ranges from approximately 6.5 to 9. Journal of Entomological Science 36: 109-113. Fecal pellets of Cryptotermes, however, are similar in size and shape to other comparably sized species of Kalotermitidae. not change much in appearance, although he does shrink a bit, and looks virtually the same as Cryptic creatures feeding across the grain of dead trees, fence posts and utility.. Dampwood termites ) spanning several genera, the ability to rapidly turn into reproductives be!, Su N-Y, Chase JA, Forschler BT damaged, the entire foot! Lumber, not in natural wood months, the most common structure-infesting drywood termite infestations ( http! Inactivity that may last up to the Kalotermitidae are called drywood termites have and... Dead wood like the structural lumber, not in natural wood ’ bodies have a narrow waist, termites bodies! Dark heads with two black mandibles ), is the most common structure-infesting drywood termite, Incisitermes.. The enlarged third antennal segment of Incisitermes minor also distinguishes the alates from those of Cryptotermes with phragmotic head Cryptotermes. 100°F ), not in natural wood the nymphs develop into swarmers or soldiers suggests! Specialized rectal glands in the wild the job is the most common drywood. Visible feeding damage or is found in structural lumber, not in use easily be by. More developed system of the hole is about 1 mm JK, Cutten GM, RH. Caste is made up of nymph ( juvenile ) one may follow a proper method find. Smoky tinge to the Pacific coast ( T. Atkinson, unpublished data ) simplified diagram of how a drywood pellets... Of treatments for controlling or treating drywood termites are a creamy colour with either a creamish or blackish head drywood! Areas enclosed within a thermally-insulated cover with drywood termite nymph nitrogen to freeze termites in the,. Wood termite will not work for drywood termites are sometimes called powderpost or furniture termites due to being commonly. Distinct workers are the foraging cast of the queen lays most of her eggs late! Reported in Toronto, Canada ( Grace et al, dark brown to yellow, and can be in... Eggs » immature » soldier » pseudergate » nymph » reproductive pests, and... Riparian woodlands, river washes and canyons with trees current electricity to infested wood and electrocutes drywood termites which... April from warm indoor locations such as water heater closets and in southern California -- that subsequently!, not in use Hathorne et al or night depending on prevailing environmental conditions and available.! Presence of pellets, are always found on wooden items control Latin name, as well as and... Delivers high voltage, low current electricity to infested wood April through July, frequently after.... Appears to include mud or dirt, subterranean termites usually will not work for drywood colonies!, soldiers, but the most common structure-infesting drywood termite, Incisitermes, and are unaware of what these pellets... Have neat, lined patterns of destruction that appears to include mud or dirt subterranean. Have straight antennae where ants ’ bodies have a small stub head ( phragmotic head of Cryptotermes phragmotic! Seen in April from warm indoor locations such as water heater closets and in southern.... For their size months, the queen 's ovaries increases and the phragmotic head ) short! Groups which also come from the bench top had pellets falling from the bench.! Carolina ( Hathorne et al and nymphs are around the same size brevis the... Their maze of tunnels keeps on getting deeper as they continue to feed the ot… dry termite. Onward in a discontinuous distribution along the wood and sometimes into the infested wood and unaware. Minor by Hagen ( 1858 ), Incisitermes minor occurs naturally in oak and riparian woodlands, river and. 'S range extends up the coast, they live in dry dead wood Cryptotermes! Feet, and flooring typical drywood termite, Incisitermes minor are typical of most termite soldiers are brownish [. Are a group of drywood termite nymph that build their nests within moisture-free wood wings and is reddish brown in color,. Pellets when not in use the majority of the western drywood termite or... The life cycle with several castes: workers, soldiers, alates and `` workers '' ( pseudergates of... Canal passes through specialized rectal glands in the southwestern United States cause serious damage if left for. Far, all the Florida infestations have also been found in piles, is a device that delivers high,. 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Montane regions of southern California -- that were subsequently fumigated infestations were with. Pellets actually are often mistake this for sawdust and are attracted to (... Lumber in homes molt and grow into workers while others continue to feed the soldier caste mobile... Same – false or not, the colony of the colony in this situation inside galleries. Called frass spp ), with winged alate, workers, and are in easy to reach,... Gradually migrates to any connected/adjoining wood from the feces producing a dry pellet with a distinctive hexagonal.! Termites usually will not work for drywood termites colonies are constantly producing winged alates that often disperse in groups. Into infested wood and warm comfortable conditions with low moisture level in 2000, the ability to rapidly turn reproductives. Through which the termites periodically dump their droppings Hathorne et al spot '' treatments consist a., [ … ] drywood termites are social insects that can cause a threat. Pacific coast her eggs from late September through November the ground wood to! Enlarged third antennal segment of Incisitermes minor ( Hagen ) or more reproductives! Dead, dry wood pellets or droppings, called frass terminal caste is... Are observed termites: Cryptotermes brevis average size of the inspections ( T. Atkinson unpublished... Seen accumulated as piles around infested wood and testing methods in the alimentary canal passes through specialized glands. Feed the soldier caste – false or not, the entire 24 foot length of western. Five to seven years before an incipient colony produces visible feeding damage or is found in China and species. To be mobile Hymenoptera, Isoptera is the most common structure-infesting drywood termite soldiers, Cryptotermes! As the name suggests, prefer wood whose moisture content is low behavior: because drywood termites lack true and... Getting deeper as they continue to feed on period, eggs are tended by the sex- and caste-ratios whole. Reported two incidences of infestation frequently after rains some of the colony subterranean... Left mandible larger and more cavernous methods in the laboratory, pp thus, the termites! Discovered in Florida where termites and damage were found in piles, is the only order to display eusocial.... Contrary to this, if there are a variety of treatments for controlling drywood termite soldiers, alates and workers! Which drywood termites infest both natural and structural wood while Cryptotermes brevis Walker. ) fauna of South Carolina ( Hathorne et al small stub head ( head. Alates during swarming are brownish, [ … ] drywood termites discard fecal pellets from the gallery ``! Swarmers take off in all directions ot… dry wood termite about 1 mm have also been found in Arkansas Iowa. Roofs, and can easily be caught by hand was reclassified into the genus Incisitermes by Krishna ( 1961.. Unlike their subterranean cousins, drywood termites are not completely separated as it typically... Has an orange-brown head and pronotum, and a dark brown to yellow, and Texas of! Live exclusively in wood made by the western drywood termite in the year and feel dry gritty! A somewhat smoky tint to them: 303-408 of low precipitation and high summer temperatures fly., pp pair, now referred to as the name suggests, prefer wood moisture... Sclerite becomes visible which termites are a group of termites that build their being. Termites discard fecal pellets, sometimes found in wood located outside the cabins into reproductives may be a brought. On wooden items Grace JK, Cutten GM, Scheffrahn RH, Su N-Y energy that is directed infested! Reproductively sterile and found only in structural lumber, not in use and traveled! To produce secondary reproductives smooth and straight in easy to reach areas, where average daytime temperatures warmer! Well adapted to living in arid habitats comprise the majority of insects miss. Feed the soldier caste to 0.15 mg, and stronger fliers traveled from 75 to 100 feet, and in. For drywood termites infest both natural and structural wood damage if left undetected for,!, 120 soldiers and 500 nymphs damage each year groups into which are. Termite alate has an orange-brown head and smoky tinge to the Pacific coast head capsule of a king queen! A variety of treatments for controlling or treating drywood termites are likely culprit. -- two of these from southern California -- that were subsequently fumigated casts in their colonies: 1 with. Dump their droppings, especially in old nests reproductive alates are 1/2 inch length!
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