Killing 185 people, the 2011 Christchurch earthquake is recorded as the nation’s most deadliest national disaster. Christchurch being New Zealand’s second most populated city, there were many casualties caused by the earthquake. [153], The army also operated desalination plants to provide water to the eastern suburbs. Land around the fault, in the Port Hills, in Cashmere and in the seaside suburbs, rose, fell and slid. [156], Australia's foreign minister Kevin Rudd told Sky News that New Zealand's Foreign Affairs Minister Murray McCully had asked for further help from Australia. Create your own unique website with customizable templates. [204] While emergency repairs were performed on damaged houses by Fletcher Construction, rebuilding would be delayed by the need for full land assessments, with the possibility that some of the worst-affected areas in the eastern suburbs might need to be abandoned due to land depression and severe liquefaction, with the residents offered relocation to new subdivisions under their EQC insurance policies. [citation needed] Local jazz flautist Miho Wada formed the ensemble Miho's Jazz Orchestra to raise money for recovery efforts. Christchurch being New Zealand’s second most populated city, there were many casualties caused by the earthquake. The September 2010 earthquake caused two Christchurch residents to be seriously injured, one by a falling chimney and a second by flying glass, and led to many with less serious injuries. (2015). [183] Twenty Chinese students were reported missing following the quake. [216][217] Avonside Girls' High School returned to its original site at the start of 2012. As per the protocols of New Zealand's Coordinated Incident Management System, the Civil Defence Emergency Management Act, and the National Civil Defence Emergency Management Plan and Guide, Civil Defence Emergency Management became lead agency—with the Director of the Ministry of Civil Defence & Emergency Management John Hamilton as National Controller. What caused the 2011 Christchurch earthquake in New zealand? Read about the GeoNet response to the landslides and rockfalls after the Christchurch earthquake: GNS Science Immediate Report LD8 (NZTopo50-BX24)/941-947 (6.32Mb) Report on Landslide Reconnaissance Flight on 24 February 2011 following the MW 6.3 Christchurch Earthquake of 22 February 2011 A September 2010 earthquake centered 40 kilometers (25 miles) west of Christchurch, in the plains near Darfield, struck at 4:35 a.m., had a magnitude of 7.1, and caused some structural damage and one death (by heart attack). NSW Task Force 1, a team of 72 urban search and rescue specialists from New South Wales, Australia was sent to Christchurch on two RAAF C-130J Hercules, arriving 12 hours after the quake. [260][262] Personality traits, such as neuroticism and low self-control are associated with a lower sense of normalcy following an earthquake,[260] however optimism is predictive of lower and less severe PTSD symptoms.[260]. On 23 February, Hotel Grand Chancellor, Christchurch's tallest hotel, was reported to be on the verge of collapse. Marshall, E.M., Frazier, P., Frankfurt, S., & Kuijer, R.G. The Anglican Church decided to demolish the building and replace it with a new structure, but various groups opposed the church's intentions, with actions including taking a case to court. Implemented programs can use this knowledge to help survivors focus on the positive effects, possibly working with families to help them get through the disaster with the people they feel closest with. [233] The earthquake in February 2011 occurred at 12:51 p.m. and just 10 kilometers (6 miles) … New Zealand's Earthquake Commission (EQC), a government organisation, levies policyholders to cover a major part of the earthquake risk. (Which tectonic plates moved?) What were the effects of the earthquake? The Australian Plate and the Pacific Plate share a convergent plate boundary. [145], The New Zealand Defence Force—staging their largest-ever operation on New Zealand soil[146]— provided logistics, equipment, transport, airbridges, evacuations, supply and equipment shipments, survey of the Port and harbour, and support to the agencies, including meals; they assisted the Police with security, and provided humanitarian aid particularly to Lyttelton, which was isolated from the city in the first days. The BBC's Jonathan Amos looks at what caused the Christchurch earthquake and why it did more damage than last year's more powerful quake. The 6.3-magnitude earthquake may have been an aftershock of the 7.1-magnitude 4 September 2010 Canterbury earthquake. [258][262] It's thought that natural disasters, such as earthquakes, are able to induce these positive effects because they affect an entire community, in comparison to an event that targets only an individual. Christchurch's central city and eastern suburbs were badly affected, with damage to buildings and infrastructure already weakened by the magnitude 7.1 Canterbury earthquake of 4 September 2010 and its aftershocks. Rhodes, B., & Becker, L. (2013). [187], Pope Benedict XVI issued an announcement on the earthquake in a statement during his Wednesday audience on 23 February, stating that he was praying for the dead and the injured victims of the devastating earthquake, and encouraging those involved in the rescue efforts. The earthquake in February 2011 occurred at 12:51 p.m. and just 10 kilometers (6 miles) from the center of Christchurch. [93][94], Landslides occurred in Sumner, crushing buildings. [172], Australian Prime Minister Julia Gillard on the earthquake. The 2011 Chrischurch earthquake was caused by movement of the Oceanic Plate and the Antarctic Plate. The earthquake epicentre was near Lyttelton, just 10 kilometres south-east of Christchurch’s central business district. The CTV Building was the headquarters of Canterbury Television (locally known as CTV) and other companies. [176], The UN and the European Union offered assistance. Liquefaction is the process of soil particles liquefying because they have been disturbed by secondary waves and then they re-arrange, meaning that soil mass compacts and decreases in volume, allowing water to come to the surface of a land area. In his formal statement, he commented that the loss of life was "dreadful" and the "thoughts and prayers of the British people were with them". In the 2010 earthquake, 180,000 claims were processed as opposed to the expected 130,000 claims for the 2011 aftershock. [260] People who exhibit lower mental health prior to the trauma don't adapt as well following trauma, and show higher levels of PTSD. A second team of 70 from Queensland, Queensland Task Force 1, (including three sniffer dogs),was sent the following day on board a RAAF C-17 . Even though the February 2011 earthquake was smaller in magnitude than the September 2010 earthquake, its impact was much greater. Answer Save. [193], A national memorial service was held on 18 March at North Hagley Park, coinciding with a one-off provincial holiday for Canterbury, which required the passing of the Canterbury Earthquake Commemoration Day Act 2011 to legislate. "[186], Barack Obama, President of the United States, issued a statement from the White House Press Office on the disaster by way of an official announcement that "On behalf of the American people, Michelle and I extend our deepest condolences to the people of New Zealand and to the families and friends of the victims in Christchurch, which has suffered its second major earthquake in just six months... As our New Zealand friends move forward, may they find some comfort and strength in knowing that they will have the enduring friendship and support of many partners around the world, including the United States." [223] Some matches needed to be rescheduled. One of the plates will become higher than the other and cause the land to not only move away horizontally but vertically as well. [107] KiwiRail also delayed 14 March departure of its Interislander ferry Aratere to Singapore for a 30-metre (98 ft) extension and refit prior to the 2011 Rugby World Cup. [7] In each of these cases the buildings that collapsed were known to have been appreciably damaged in the September 2010 earthquake but the local authority had permitted the building to be re-occupied (CTV and PGC buildings) or protective barriers adjacent to them moved closer to areas at risk of falling debris (Colombo Street). [64] The building was thought to be irreparably damaged and have the potential to bring down other buildings if it fell; an area of a two-block radius around the hotel was thus evacuated. The earthquake caused widespread damage across Christchurch, killing 185 people[6][7] in the nation's fifth-deadliest disaster. Wanaka Primary School alone had received 115 new enrolments as Christchurch families moved to their holiday homes in the town.[212]. In the case of the Christchurch earthquakes, liquefaction and damage to buildings occurred. Christchurch Police were supplemented by staff and resources from around the country, along with a 323-strong contingent of Australian Police, who were sworn in as New Zealand Police on their arrival, bringing the total number of officers in the city to 1200. [256] Because large number of citizens are being displaced, it is difficult to find a representative sample population. [194] Prince William, made a two-day trip to the country to tour the areas affected by the earthquake,[195] attended on the Queen's behalf and made an address during the service. The earthquake first er upted 5 km south-east of Christchurch at 12:51pm (local time 23:51:43 GMT) on the 22 of February 2011. [228] In the ANZ Netball Championship, the earthquake caused significant damage to the Canterbury Tactix's main home venue, CBS Canterbury Arena, and the franchise's head office at Queen Elizabeth II Park. In September 2012, Minister of Education Hekia Parata announced plans to permanently close and/or merge a number of schools due to falling roll numbers and quake damage. [160] Power had been restored to 82% of households within five days,[161] and to 95% within two weeks. Christchurch earthquakes of 2010–11, series of tremors that occurred within and near the city of Christchurch, New Zealand, and the Canterbury Plains region from early September 2010 to late December 2011. Studying earthquakes has shown to be a difficult task when considering all the limitations created by natural disasters. Media releases. [226] The Crusaders' first two home matches of the season, originally to be played in Christchurch, were moved to Trafalgar Park in Nelson. Tremors continue to hit Christchurch and the surrounding Canterbury region, mostly centered around the small Canterbury town of Darfield. A number of cars were crushed by falling debris. Many heritage buildings were given red stickers after inspections. Scope of Project Following the major earthquake on 22nd February 2011, Christchurch was in a State of Emergency, with urgent works required throughout the city. Christchurch earthquake: hunt for survivors begins This article is more than 9 years old Dozens dead and many feared trapped, as rescuers in New … [76][77], The Carlton Hotel, a listed heritage building, was undergoing repairs after the September 2010 earthquake damage when the February 2011 earthquake damaged the building further. As a comparison, the March 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Japan is estimated to have caused damage equivalent to around 3 to 4 percent of Japan’s annual GDP. The crew of the Navy ship Canterbury, in Lyttelton harbour at the time of the earthquake, provided meals for 1,000 people left homeless in that town,[151] and accommodation for a small number of locals. CDEM were supported by local authorities, New Zealand Police, Fire Service, Defence Force and many other agencies and organisations. Wedding Supplies in Christchurch City, Christchurch - Log in for great & exciting features! [254], In March 2013 a researcher at the University of Canterbury said after the quake, residents – particularly women – turned to comfort food and began eating unhealthily. "[53][54], Of the 3,000 buildings inspected within the four avenues of the central city by 3 March 2011, 45% had been given red or yellow stickers to restrict access because of the safety problems. Causes The earthquake struck the city of Christchurch in New Zealand on 22 February 2011. The last survivor was pulled from the rubble the day after the quake. The June 2011 Christchurch earthquake was a shallow magnitude 6.0 M w earthquake that occurred on 13 June 2011 at 14:20 NZST (02:20 UTC).It was centred at a depth of 7 km (4.3 mi), about 5 km (3 mi) south-east of Christchurch, which had previously been devastated by a magnitude 6.2 M W earthquake in February 2011. The 2011 Inter Dominion harness racing series was scheduled to be held at Addington Raceway in March and April however the series was instead contested in Auckland. ... Earthquakes can cause sections of earth to liquefy and push up to the surface as watery silt. Most of the damage was in areas surrounding the epicentres. [97] Three deaths were reported in the Sumner area, according to the Sumner Chief Fire Officer. SuperSealing’s task was to help prevent road and pathway erosion that had suffered extensive wash … [48] A number of cars were crushed by falling debris. [121] A full response management structure was put in place within minutes of the quake, with the Christchurch City Council's alternate Emergency Operations Centre re-established in the City Art Gallery and the regional Canterbury CDEM Group Emergency Coordination Centre (ECC) activated in its post-earthquake operational facility adjacent to the Canterbury Regional Council offices. The Governor-General also had to revoke his previous proclamation of the date of the census. The Transforming boundary was involved in the Christchurch earthquakes. [13], Although smaller in magnitude than the 2010 earthquake, the February earthquake was more damaging and deadly for a number of reasons. [209] It is a project of the Digital Humanities department, with the aim of preserving the knowledge, memories and earthquake experiences of people of the Canterbury region. [105], At the Tasman Glacier some 200 kilometres (120 miles) from the epicentre, around 30 million tonnes (33 million ST) of ice tumbled off the glacier into Tasman Lake, hitting tour boats with tsunami waves 3.5 metres (11 ft) high. Some residents went several days without official contact, so neighbours were encouraged to attend to those around them. Statistics New Zealand's main urban area definition for Christchurch includes Kaiapoi, which belongs to Waimakariri District, and Prebbleton, which belongs to Selwyn District. The International Rugby Board and the New Zealand Rugby World Cup organisers announced in March 2011 that the city would be unable to host the World Cup matches. [110] Over half of the deaths occurred in the six-storey Canterbury Television (CTV) Building, which collapsed and caught fire in the earthquake. The Christchurch rebuild is forecast to start in earnest during the second half of 2012, continuing through to at least 2016. [23] This is the highest PGA ever recorded in New Zealand; the highest reading during the September 2010 event was 1.26g, recorded near Darfield. [238], In October 2008, the population of the Christchurch main urban area, as defined by Statistics New Zealand, had for the first time exceeded the Wellington equivalent (at 386,100 versus 386,000), which made Christchurch the second largest city in New Zealand (after Auckland). The earthquake happened 5 km south-east of Christchurch; it had a focal depth of of 5 km. However, the violent magnitude 6.3 earthquake that devastated Christchurch on 22 February 2011 was caused by movement along a fault that does not appear to have broken the surface. [84][85][86], Several other churches were seriously damaged, including: Knox Presbyterian Church, St Luke's Anglican Church, Durham Street Methodist Church, St Paul's-Trinity-Pacific Presbyterian Church, Oxford Terrace Baptist Church, Holy Trinity Avonside and Holy Trinity, Lyttelton. [243], Commercial properties are not insured by the EQC, but by private insurance companies. Before the earthquake occurred, there were many disaster response personnel and government officials from the US an [152] The Royal Australian Air Force also assisted with air lifts. Three RNZAF Bell UH-1H Iroquois helicopters were also used to transport Police, VIP's and aid to locations around Christchurch. JPMorgan Chase & Co say the total overall losses related to this earthquake may be US$12 billion. [19] 80% of the water and sewerage system was severely damaged. A state of local emergency was initially declared by the Mayor of Christchurch, which was superseded when the government declared a state of national emergency, which stayed in force until 30 April 2011. It will be important to have information on a wide variety of demographic groups because the same mental health treatment will not help all of those affected by a trauma. 2011 Christchurch Earthquake MIHOP: Another Manmade Catastrophe Caused By The USual Suspects Who Knew It Was Coming And Why? The Civic, the council's third home, was heavily damaged in February and was demolished. [224][225] The Super Rugby Round 2 match between the Crusaders and Hurricanes scheduled for 26 February 2011 at Westpac Stadium in Wellington was abandoned. The Christchurch Earthquake (2011) Home; Causes ; Impacts ; Mitigation; References; Casualties, Damages and Other Effects. [256][258][259][260] Those with the most exposure suffer the most from mental health deficits, compared with those that are relatively unaffected. We will be working alongside them to give as much relief and assistance to New Zealand as we possibly can. Liquefaction is when a water like liquid emerges from the ground. The June 2011 Christchurch earthquake was a shallow magnitude 6.0 M w earthquake that occurred on 13 June 2011 at 14:20 NZST (02:20 UTC).It was centred at a depth of 7 km (4.3 mi), about 5 km (3 mi) south-east of Christchurch, which had previously been devastated by a magnitude 6.2 M W earthquake in February 2011. [141] The United Kingdom sent a 53 strong search and rescue team including nine Welsh firefighters who had assisted the rescue effort during the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Erskine, N., Daley, V., Stevenson, Su. [155], A field hospital providing 75 beds was set up in the badly affected eastern suburbs on 24 February. [234] The public grandstand at Addington was later demolished due to damage from the earthquake and aftershocks. The red devil in Christchurch. [12][21], The peak ground acceleration (PGA) in central Christchurch exceeded 1.8g (i.e. [162] Electricity distribution operator Orion later stated the power outages caused by the earthquake added to 3261 SAIDI minutes, or equivalent to the entire city being without power for 54 hours and 21 minutes. Because it has been found that different demographics are affected differently,[256] this also needs to be taken into account when finding solutions to aid recovery. The earthquake generated a significant series of its own aftershocks. In March 2011 the government established The Canterbury Earthquakes Royal Commission to report on the causes of building failure as a result of the earthquakes as well as the adequacy of building codes and other standards for buildings in New Zealand Central Business Districts. The earthquake’s epicentre was located some 25 miles (40 km) west of Christchurch near the town of Darfield, and the focus was located about 6 miles (10 km) beneath the surface. [90], Buildings in Lyttelton sustained widespread damage, with a fire officer reporting that 60% of the buildings in the main street had been severely damaged. [125], Gerry Brownlee, a Cabinet Minister, had his regular portfolios distributed amongst other cabinet ministers so that he could focus solely on earthquake recovery.[126]. [63], The Forsyth Barr Building survived the earthquake but many occupants were trapped after the collapse of the stairwells, forcing some to abseil out after the quake. [102], Redcliffs Primary School, then located at 140 Main Road, right under the cliffs, was moved to Van Asch Deaf Education Centre, 4.5 km from the main site soon afterwards. [68] By mid-2019 early design and stabilisation work had begun. They took into account a technical investigation undertaken by the Department of Building and Housing. [133] They were aided by DVI teams from Australia, UK, Thailand[134] Taiwan and Israel.[133]. [7], Immediately following the earthquake, 80% of Christchurch was without power. [92] The town's historic Timeball Station was extensively damaged, adding to damage from the preceding earthquake in September 2010. The cancellation required an amendment to the Statistics Act 1975, which legally requires a census to be taken every five years. Aftershocks were concentrated at the east end of the fault towards Christchurch as rock distorted by the original earthquake adjusted to new stresses. Road surfaces were forced up by liquefaction, and water and sand were spewing out of cracks. EQC chief executive Ian Simpson said that the $4 billion cap for each earthquake is unlikely to be exceeded by the costs of residential building and land repairs, so $3 billion would be left in the EQC's Natural Disaster Fund after payouts. [16] Liquefaction was significantly greater than that of the 2010 quake, causing the upwelling of more than 200,000 tonnes of silt[17][18] which needed to be cleared. Trajectories of posttraumatic growth and depreciation after two major earthquakes. [24], The upwards (positive acceleration) was greater than the downwards, which had a maximum recording of 0.9g; the maximum recorded horizontal acceleration was 1.7g[26] The force of the earthquake was "statistically unlikely" to occur more than once in 1000 years, according to one seismic engineer, with a PGA greater than many modern buildings were designed to withstand. Staff were grateful that they did not have to employ triage, but were able to deal with all patients. In April 2013 the Government estimated the total cost of the rebuild would be as much as $40 billion, up from an earlier estimate of $30 billion. [64] Search of the building was technically difficult for USAR teams, requiring the deconstruction of 4-tonne stair sets, but the building was cleared with no victims discovered.[65]. Evidence from research on the Christchurch earthquakes reveals that increased trauma exposure is not exclusively correlated with negative outcomes. More than 361 aftershocks occurred in the first week following the 6.3-magnitude earthquake. [136] On 1 March, it was announced that the New South Wales Government would be donating A$1 million (NZ$1.3 million[175]) to the victims of the Christchurch earthquake. [255], The Christchurch earthquake of 2011 had widespread mental health effects on the population. [162], Thousands of people helped with the clean-up efforts—involving the removal of over 200,000 tonnes of liquefaction silt—including Canterbury University's Student Volunteer Army which was created in response to the earthquake that September and the Federated Farmers' "Farmy Army". [253], A KPMG survey in March 2013 suggested as much as $1.5 billion could be sucked from the rebuild in fraud. 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